Pharmacognosy-IIB (Advanced) (PH3743)

[vc_row el_class=”inner-body-content” css=”.vc_custom_1667469102748{padding-top: 30px !important;padding-bottom: 20px !important;}”][vc_column][vc_custom_heading text=”COURSE OBJECTIVES” use_theme_fonts=”yes” css=”.vc_custom_1667469084703{margin-top: 0px !important;}”][vc_column_text]This course provides advanced information on Pharmacognosy including: chemical constituents of therapeutic values with in natural sources, their identification, isolation and characterization. Sound knowledge regarding volatile oils, resin, oleoresin, tannins, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Course outline gives necessary information regarding natural resources with anticancer and antitumor potential. This course provides a brief introduction to clinical Pharmacognosy and use of herbs and herbal medicines against major domains of bodily disorders.[/vc_column_text][vc_custom_heading text=”COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)” font_container=”tag:h3|text_align:left” use_theme_fonts=”yes”][vc_column_text]CLO: 1. Describe drugs, toxicants, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals of natural origin, various techniques of their separation, purification and classification.
CLO: 2. Explain clinical Pharmacognosy and illustrate biological source of anticancer and antitumor agents.
CLO: 3. Clinical Applications of herbs and herbal medicines.
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  1. VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS):
    • Introduction, significance, sources, active constituents, methods of obtaining volatile oils, chemistry and classification of:
      • Hydrocarbon volatile oils: Cubeb and Turpentine oil.
      • Alcoholic volatile oils: Peppermint, Coriander and Cardamom.
      • Aldehydic volatile oils: Bitter orange peel, sweet orange peel, Lemon, cinnamon and bitter almond oil
      • Ketonic volatile oils: Camphor, spearmint, caraway, Buchu
      • Phenolic volatile oils: Clove, Thyme.
      • Phenolic ether volatile oils: Fennel, Anise, Myristica.
      • Oxide volatile oils: Eucalyptus, chenopodium.
      • Ester volatile oils: Rosemary.
      • Miscellaneous volatile oils: Allium, Anethum.
  2. RESINS AND OLEORESINS:
    • Introduction, classification, active constituents and pharmacological uses of jalap, turpentine, asafoetida, benzoin, rosin, cannabis, podophyllum, ipomea, myrrh, and balsam.
  3. TANNINS:
    • Introduction, classification, biosynthesis, extraction, identification, occurrence in plants, their role in plant life and chemical study of tannins in kino, myrobalan, catechu, nutgall, castanea, and krameria.
  4. NATURAL TOXICANTS:
    • General Introduction to Plant Toxicology: Definition, classification and chemical nature of plant toxins. Plant toxicities in humans and animals
    • Higher Plant Toxins: Essential oils: Terpene (cineol, pine oil), Phenyl propane (apiol, safrole, myristicin), Monoterpene (thujone, menthafuran) Plant acids (oxalic acid, amino acid, resin acid), Glycosides (cardiotonic, cyanognic), Alkaloids (imidazole, pyrrolizidine, tropane).
    • Lower Plant Toxins: Bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum), Algal toxins (Microcystis aeruginosa, Cyanobecteria, Gonyaulaxcantenella).
    • Fungal toxins (Aspergillus spp., Clavicepspurpurea), Mushrooms (Amanita spp.)_
    • Study of Toxins, their Prevention and Control Methods: Description, pharmacognostic features, pharmacological actions, chemical constituents, treatment, side-effects, contra-indications, warnings, prevention and control methods of Abrusprecatorius, Papaver somniferum, Eucalyptus spp., Nicotiana tabaccum, Cannabis sativa, Digitalis purpurea, Datura stramonium poisoning.
  5. AN INTRODUCTION TO NUTRACEUTICALS AND COSMECEUTICALS
  6. TUMOR INHIBITORS FROM PLANTS:
    • Introduction of anticancer agents of natural origin, as Catharanthusroseus, Colchicum autumnale, Podophyllum peltatum, rifamycin antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, anti-AIDS agents and immunostimulants.
  7. INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL PHARMACOGNOSY:
    • General introduction and historical background of clinical Pharmacognosy. Study of treatment by herbal medicines
  8. CLINICAL USE OF HERBS & HERBAL MEDICINE:
    • _Gymnemasylvestre, Melia azadirchta, Momordicacharantia, Syzygiumjambulana_
    • Cardiac diseases: Digitalis spp., Convallaria majalis, Urgeniaindica, Allium sativum, Punicagranatum.
    • Berberis vulgaris, Picrorhizakurroa, Lawsoniainnermis_
    • Respiratory diseases: Ficusreligosa, Adhatodavasica.
    • Skin diseases: Aloe vera, Angelica archangelica, Mentha piperita, Citrus spp.Commiphoramukul.
    • CNS disorders: Strychnosnux-vomica, Datura stramonium, Cannabis sativa, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladonna.
    • Musculo-skeletal disorders: Nigella sativa, Phycotisajowan, Trigonellafoenum-graecum, Zingiberofficinale.
    • Renal disorders: Cucumis melo, Berberis vulgaris, Zea mays, Tribulus terrestris
    • Reproductive disorders: Saracaindica, Rutagraveolens, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Clavicepspurpurea, Myristica fragrance
    • G.I.T. disorders: Foeniculum vulgare, Ferulafoetida, Cuminumcyminum, Aegle marmelos, Prunus domestica.

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