After the completion of this course the students will be quite familiar with the importance of databases, core concepts, database design and its refinement and moderate level of expertise in SQL. Students should be able to design the database schema for at least a small sized real life application.


CLO: 1. Acquire the basic concepts and uses of databases with different applications/Systems. [C1 – Knowledge]
CLO: 2. Describe and apply different stages of database development using different data models [C3 – Application]
CLO: 3. Identify function dependencies and resolve database anomalies by normalizing database tables. [C2 – Comprehension]
CLO: 4. Build code of Structured Query Language (SQL) for database definition and manipulation using any DBMS. [P3 – Comprehension]


  1. Introduction to Basic Database Concepts
    • The Course Outline and Objective, Database Definition, Importance of Databases, Shortcomings of Traditional File Processing System, Levels of Data, Different Types of Database Users, History of DBMSs, Advantages and Disadvantages of DBMSs
  2. Database Architecture
    • Three Level Schema Architecture, Data Independence, Database Languages Database, Data Model and DBMS, Functions and Components of a DBMS Multi-user DBMS Architectures
  3. Database Planning, Design, and Administration
    • The Information System Life Cycle, DBS Development Life Cycle, DB Planning System Definition, Requirements Collection and Analysis, DB Design, DBMS Selection Application Design, Prototyping, Implementation, Data Conversion and Loading Testing, Operational Maintenance, CASE Tools, Data Administration and Database Administration
  4. Fact-Finding Techniques
    • What facts are collected, Techniques, A worked example
  5. Entity-Relationship Modeling
    • Semantic Data Models, Introduction to Entity-Relationship Data Model Different Constructs of E-R Data Model, Abstraction Process Modeling different types of Entities and Attributes
  6. Entity-Relationship Modeling
    • Cardinality and Degree of a Relationship, Unary, Binary and n-array Relationships
  7. Entity-Relationship Modeling Case Studies
  8. Relational Model and Languages
    • Introduction to Relational Data Model, Brief History Advantages, Relational Model Terminology, Mathematical Relations, Database Relations Characteristics of Relations, Understanding tables, The Concept of Key, Different Types of Keys, Integrity Constraints Over Relations, Key Constraints, Foreign Key Constraints General Constraints, Data dictionaries, Views
  9. ER to RDM transformation
  10. Normalization
    • Objectives, Functional Dependency, Inference Rules, First Normal Form, Full Functional Dependency, Second Normal Form, Transitive Dependency, Third Normal Form, Boyce-Codd Normal Form
  11. Data Manipulation Languages
    • Relational Algebra: Unary and Binary operations, Selection, Projection, Cartesian Product Different types of Joins, Union, Intersection, Division
  12. Relational Algebra Practice
  13. SQL Quires
    • Insert, Delete, Select, Update, Where, Order by
  14. SQL Quires with Joins
    • Types of joins, Sub queries
  15. Indexing
    • Types of SQL indexing
  16. Presentation of projects